Iwokrama’s environment is one of the most intensively biodiverse regions on the planet

The Iwokrama Forest and the neighbouring North Rupununi wetlands are an extraordinary ecosystem encompassing a range of habitats which include more than 200 lakes, braided rivers flowing over volcanic dykes, 1,000 meter mountains, lowland tropical rain forests, palm forests, seasonally flooded forests and savannahs.

Floral and Faunal Biodiversity at Iwokrama

The Iwokrama area boasts an extraordinary biodiversity which is world class, it is home to healthy populations of some of the world’s largest and most endangered species – the “Giants of El Dorado” including the Harpy Eagle, the Jaguar, the Giant Anteater, the Giant River Otter, the Arapaima (the world’s largest scaled fish), the Anaconda, the Black Caiman, the Giant River Turtle and the Bushmaster snake.

The Iwokrama Forest and North Rupununi Wetlands also contain the largest number of fish and bat species in the world for an area of its size.

Faunal diversity

30% of faunal species in this area are classified as rare and endangered.

  • 130 species of mammals
  • 500 species of birds
  • 150 species of reptiles and amphibians
  • 420 species of fish
  • 86 species of bats

Floral diversity

There are 9 distinct forest types in the Iwokrama Forest.

  • The largest forest type covers 33% of the forest – mixed greenheart, black kakaralli and wamara forest.
  • Around 20% of the forest is mixed greenheart, sand baromalli and soft wallaba forest
  • About 16% of the forest is mora, manicole, crabwood and trysil forest
  • 15% of the forest is mixed low stature forest
  • 7% of the forest is manicole, kokerite and soft wallaba palm forest
  • the remainder of the forest is less than 5% each of wallaba, dakama, muri scrub and liana forest.

Botanical surveys of the Iwokrama Forest have found over 1,250 species of plants. However, the total number expected for the area is likely to exceed 2,000 species with additional work in highland areas.

Mammals of Iwokrama

Anteaters

Anteaters have long snouts and no teeth. They use their powerful front legs and long claws to tear open ant and termite nests, and then a long sticky tongue to gather up the insects. Anteaters do not walk on the soles of their feet when on the ground, but instead twist their foot and walk on the side or the knuckles. This leaves distinctive, odd-looking tracks

Giant anteater

Myrmecophaga tridactyla

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  • Giant Anteater

    Myrmecophaga tridactyla

    MAKUSHI NAME: Tumanuwa
    CREOLE NAME: Ants Eater
    SIZE: body=1.2 m; tail=75 cm; weight=30 kg
    DESCRIPTION:Large, appears “too long” for its height, due to long bushy tail and long nose. Distinct markings on chest and forelegs; four claws on forefoot, five claws on hind foot. Unmistakable.
    ACTIVITY: May be active by day or night; activity cycle varies with external temperature, rainfall and extent of human disturbance. Terrestrial, moves with a shuffling gait or rolling gallop.
    HABITS: Solitary except when breeding; female carries young on their back for up to 9 months. This large anteater travels long distances when feeding, moving at a fast walk. It uses its powerful claws to open large termite mounds or terrestrial ant nests, stopping for only a few seconds at each mound to feed. The short feeding bouts enable it to quickly gather larvae and workers from the colony before soldier insects are mobilized to bite or spray noxious chemicals at its nose and mouth. It is usually silent but may roar when threatened. If cornered, it will rear up and slash at the attacker with its massive claws.
    HABITAT: Forest and savannah. Most common in areas with conspicuous termite mounds.
    SIGNS: Odd-looking tracks show front claws pointing backward or laterally (it walks on the knuckles with the claws turned under), front track 80 to 100 mm wide; breakage to the upper levels of large termite mounds indicate recent activity of this species (Giant Armadillo attacks near base of mounds).
    STATUS: Absent from many suitable areas due to human persecution. Listed on CITES Appendix II. IUCN rank of Vulnerable.

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Tamanuda

Tamandua tetradactyla

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  • Tamanuda

    Tamandua tetradactyla

    MAKUSHI NAME: Waiwo
    SIZE: body=60 cm; tail=50 cm; weight=6 kg
    DESCRIPTION: Medium-sized, with a long prehensile tail. May be blonde on head, upper back and legs, with a black vest, or entirely blonde, or blonde with a partial vest. Four large claws on powerful forelimbs, five claws on hind limbs; tail almost naked, pink with irregular blackish splotches.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal or diurnal; semiarboreal.
    HABITS: Solitary. It may be seen walking on the forest floor, stopping to open rotting logs, but is equally likely to be seen climbing on vines and branches, or dozing on a branch. It may sleep in hollow logs or in holes on the ground. It feeds on ants, termites and bees. It attacks arboreal termite nests and obtains ants from ground nests. It is usually silent but can be located by sounds of tearing wood. When threatened it may wheeze and spit or urinate, and may rear up, using the tail as a brace. It has been known to kill domestic dogs.
    HABITAT: Forest, second growth and savannah.
    SIGNS: Odd-looking tracks with front claws pointing backward, front 55 mm wide, hind 40 mm wide; broken arboreal termite nests and slashes in rotten wood indicate recent activity.
    STATUS: Fairly common. Listed by CITES as a species of Least Concern.

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Pygmy anteater

Cyclopes didactylus

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  • Pygmy Anteater

    Cyclopes didactylus

    MAKUSHI NAME: Warin
    CREOLE NAME: Silky Anteater, Thank yee God
    SIZE: body=15 cm; tail=20 cm; weight=225 g
    DESCRIPTION: Very small, with a furry prehensile tail. Golden brown with a silvery sheen; black stripes down midline of back and belly. Two large claws on forefoot, four claws on hind foot. Tail long and tapered, furred to tip. Unlike any other small arboreal mammal.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal, active soon after sunset to within an hour of dawn; strictly arboreal.
    HABITS: Solitary; each individual occupies a large home range. During the day it sleeps curled up in a vine tangle, 2 to 10 m above ground. It travels on pencil-thin vines, using the large front claws to open hollow stems in search of ants, its preferred food. It is reported to make a soft whistle but it is usually silent.
    HABITAT: Mature forest and tall secondary forest
    SIGNS: Look for a furry golden ball in a vine tangle
    STATUS: Probably not uncommon but seldom encountered. Not yet recorded at Iwokrama but expected to be there. CITES lists this as a species of Least Concern.

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Armadillos

Armadillos have a distinctive bony shell which protects them. They have strong feet with long claws which they use for digging burrows where they rest and nest. They feed on ants and termites and may eat other plant and animal foods

Giant armadillo

Priodontes maximus

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  • Giant Armadillo

    Priodontes maximus

    MAKUSHI NAME: Mauraimî
    CREOLE NAME: Yesi, Yaci
    SIZE: body=90 cm; tail=50 cm; weight=30 kg
    DESCRIPTION: Very large. Carapace (bony shell) greyish edged yellow, underparts pinkish, not fully covered by shell. Very large legs and feet with massive claws on front foot. Tail covered with pentagonal scales. Unmistakable.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal; terrestrial and subterranean.
    HABITS: Solitary. Dens in the daytime in burrows, often dug into termite mounds. This huge armadillo feeds by digging into the nests of ants and termites, ramming the nest and moving its legs like a jackhammer. If disturbed it may sit up on its haunches to sniff the air.
    HABITAT: Rainforest and savannah.
    SIGNS: Front track with massive claw mark well spaced from toe pad. Huge burrow has a semicircular entrance about 45 cm wide; extensive damage to termite or ant nests indicates recent activity.
    STATUS: Rare throughout most of its range. Listed by CITES as Vulnerable.

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Great long nosed armadillo

Dasypus kappleri

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  • Great Long-nosed Armadillo

    Dasypus kappleri

    MAKUSHI NAME: Kaikan, Kapasi, Mu’ru, Pîrun
    CREOLE NAME: Ta-too
    SIZE: body=55 cm; tail=45 cm; weight=10 kg
    DESCRIPTION: Medium-sized, with a relatively elongated snout; narrow, close-set ears; carapace (bony shell) with a dome-shaped profile and 7 to 9 movable bands of scales on mid-back; well developed projecting scutes (bony plates) behind the knees. The base of the long, armoured tail is thick and noticeably flattened, especially in adults. Armadillos have no eyeshine.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal, terrestrial.
    HABITS: Solitary. This armadillo is often heard lumbering through leaves and twigs before it is seen.
    HABITAT: Forest floor, especially near swamps or streams.
    SIGNS: Burrow is conspicuous, about 25 cm in diameter with a smooth dome-shaped entrance, usually located near streams. Likewise, its bird-like, three-toed tracks are distinctive. This armadillo has a strong odour.
    STATUS: Locally common. CITES lists this as a species of Least Concern.

Bats

Bats are the only mammals that fly. Their wings consist of skin membranes which are braced internally by very elongated hands and fingers. Nocturnal, most bats use sight and echolocation to navigate and find prey. Typically, bats are social and roost in groups. Different species feed on a great variety of foods: in Iwokrama, some species eat fruits, others pollen and nectar, insects, or small vertebrates (including the fishing bat), and there are even two species of vampires that feed on blood.

River bat

Rhynchonycteris naso

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  • River Bat

    Rhynchonycteris naso

    SCIENTIFIC NAME: Rhynchonycteris naso
    SIZE: body=4 cm; weight=5 g
    DESCRIPTION: Tiny; fur grizzled greyish, with two inconspicuous, wavy whitish stripes down back, and distinctive tufts of pale fur along forearm; nose long, projects beyond lower jaw.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal (crepuscular), aerial. Becomes active earlier than most bats and can sometimes be seen foraging for insects in the dimming light of late afternoon or early morning.
    HABITS: This well camouflaged bat roosts in small groups lined up close together on the underside of logs or tree trunks leaning over the water. It usually flutters away like a swift butterfly when approached too closely.
    HABITAT: Forest edge, along rivers and lagoons. They can be easily seen by traveling down-river in boat or canoe, wherein groups occur every kilometre or so.
    STATUS: Often common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Greater white-lined
sac-winged bat

Saccopteryx bilineata

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  • Greater white-lined sac-winged bat

    Saccopteryx bilineata

    SIZE: body=5 cm; weight=7 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium-sized blackish bat with two wavy white lines on the back. Wing sacs, prominent in males, in front of forearms near elbow
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal. Begins to fly at dusk.
    HABITS: Forages near the roost at dusk then further away as the evening progresses. Roosts together in groups of up to 50 in tree hollows or cavities of large buttress trees. Several harems of one male defending up to 9 females can be found roosting together.
    HABITAT: Primary and secondary lowland rainforest.
    STATUS: Common. The bat most likely to be encountered when walking trails and searching for roosts. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Chestnut sac-winged bat

Cormura brevirostris

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  • Chestnut sac-winged bat

    Cormura brevirostris

    SIZE: body=5 cm; weight=9 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium-sized chestnut brown with glandular sacs extending to the edge of wing in front of elbows. Wing membrane attaches near base of toe.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal. Begins to forage in the early evening.
    HABITS: Feeds on small insects. Roosts in large rotting logs and in tree hollows in small groups. Roosting individuals may stack up on top of each other.
    HABITAT: Lowland rainforest. Open spaces near the edge of forest or over water. Often seen fluttering over the road through Iwokrama Forest.
    STATUS: Locally common. In Iwokrama this is the most commonly encountered bat roosting in large fallen logs. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Frog eating bat

Trachops cirrhosus

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  • Frog eating bat

    Trachops cirrhosus

    SIZE: body=8 cm; weight=30 g
    DESCRIPTION: Large grey-brown bat with long fur. Mouth surrounded by wart-like bumps. Conspicuous noseleaf and large, rounded ears.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal. Flies low in the forest understory.
    HABITS: Feeds on large insects and frogs (can discriminate poisonous frogs based on their calls). Roosts in small groups of up to 12 in tree hollows and caves.
    HABITAT: Primary and secondary rainforest, and gallery forest, especially near streams and swamps.
    STATUS: Common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

False vampire bat

Vampyrum spectrum

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  • False vampire bat

    Vampyrum spectrum

    SIZE: body=14 cm; weight=180 g
    DESCRIPTION: Largest bat in South America. Dark brown with faint stripe down back. Ears large and rounded. Muzzle elongated with noseleaf positioned like a hood ornament.
    ACTIVITY: Usually forages during the early evening.
    HABITS:It is carnivorous, preying on birds and small mammals (bats and mice). Roosts in tree hollows in groups consisting usually of a pair of monogamous adults and their non-breeding young.
    HABITAT: Lowland forest, especially near swamps, forest edge, and secondary growth.
    STATUS:Rare. IUCN lists this bat as near threatened.

Sword-nosed bat

Lonchorhina aurita

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  • Sword nosed bat

    Lonchorhina aurita

    SIZE: body=6 cm; tail=5 cm; weight=13 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium size with long brownish fur. Spectacular, long (about 2 cm) pointed noseleaf (fleshy leaf-like appendage on tip of nose) rivals large pointed ears.
    ACTIVITY: Active later in the evening. Slow, agile flight; can hover.
    HABITS: Feeds on insects and some fruit. Large ears, noseleaf and agile flight suggest this bat listens for prey and picks it from vegetation (gleaning). Known to roost in large numbers in caves in other countries but only known in Guyana by one specimen caught over a dry creek bed in Iwokrama Forest.
    HABITAT: Lowland rainforest
    STATUS: Uncommon. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Northern ghost bat

Diclidurus albus

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  • Northern ghost bat

    Diclidurus albus

    SIZE: body=7.5 cm; weight=20 g
    DESCRIPTION: Large, white bat with translucent pinkish wings. Glandular sac near tip of tail in centre of large tail membrane. This is the largest of four species of ghost bats in Iwokrama.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal.
    HABITS: Flies high in open areas over rivers, foraging for moths and other insects. Roosts in small groups (up to 4) under palm fronds.
    HABITAT: Forested areas usually over open bodies of water, but also found in towns and clearings.
    STATUS: Rare. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Greater moustached bat

Pteronotus parnellii

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  • Greater moustached bat

    Pteronotus parnellii

    SIZE: body=6.5 cm; weight=20 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium-sized with short brown fur. Stiff hairs projecting from above the mouth. Leaflike plate of skin protruding from lower lip.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal. Most active in the early evening.
    HABITS:A fast flying aerial insectivore. Usually found within closed forest hunting for beetles and other insects. In other Neotropical countries roosts by the thousands in caves. Caves and rock formations are not prevalent in Guyana but this species is still found in high densities in many areas. It is presumed that there are plenty of suitable tree hollows or alternative roost sites to support these high populations. Often seen flying along trails.
    HABITAT: Mature and secondary forest, savannah.
    STATUS: Common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Fishing bat

Noctilio leporinus

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  • Fishing bat

    Noctilio leporinus

    SIZE: body=9 cm; weight=65 g
    DESCRIPTION: Large bat; fur short, bright rust-orange with pale stripe along back. Enormous hindfeet with large sharp claws. Upper lip is split and droops down forming cheek pouches. Strong, musty odour.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal.
    HABITS: Forages over water for small fish using echolocation to detect fish breaking the water surface. Gaffs fish with clawed hindfeet and then stuffs into cheek pouches. Roosts in tree hollows usually in large groups. During long foraging bouts, may rest in a temporary night roost and feed on its catch.
    HABITAT: Wet lowland and coastal areas including rainforest and swamps. Usually hunts over medium and large rivers.
    STATUS: Often common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

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Spix's disk winged bat

Thyroptera tricolor

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  • Spix's disk winged bat

    Thyroptera tricolor

    SIZE: body=4 cm; tail=3 cm; weight=4 g
    DESCRIPTION: Very small and delicate bat with long fluffy fur. Upperparts dark brown and underparts whitish. Extensive membrane between legs with long tail extending just beyond the edge. Suction cups on thumbs and heels.
    ACTIVITY: Their flight is quite agile and manoeuvrable making them difficult to catch in nets.
    HABITS: Probably catches small insects in flight. Roosts upright in furled Heliconia leaves and uses suction-cup-like disks on wrists and ankles to move along the slick surface. New roost sites are found almost everyday as the leaves unroll and open. Up to 9 bats live in a roost.
    HABITAT: Lowland rainforest
    STATUS: Uncommon. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Black myotis

Myotis nigricans

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  • Black myotis

    Myotis nigricans

    SIZE: body=4.5 cm; tail=3 cm; weight=5 g
    DESCRIPTION: Small blackish bat. Long tail completely enclosed in membrane between legs.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal. Bats begin to leave their day roost at sunset and usually do not return until after dawn.
    HABITS: Eat moths and other small insects, resting at temporary roosts during the night. In the day, roosts in tree hollows, caves, and buildings.
    HABITAT: Lowland rainforest.
    STATUS: Common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Black bonneted bat

Eumops auripendulus

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  • Black bonneted bat

    Eumops auripendulus

    SIZE: body=8 cm; tail=4 cm; weight=30 g
    DESCRIPTION: Large, brownish black bat. Ears extend over flat face to tip of nose. Long tail extends well beyond tail membrane (this is why it belongs to the group with the common name “free-tailed bats”).
    ACTIVITY: High-flying aerial insectivore.
    HABITS: Feeds on large insect prey. Roosts in small groups in tree hollows and buildings.
    HABITAT: Rainforest and clearings
    STATUS: Often common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Common mastiff bat

Molossus rufus

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  • Common mastiff bat

    Molossus rufus

    SIZE:body=8.5 cm; tail=4 cm; weight=30 g
    DESCRIPTION: Small greyish or reddish brown bat with bases of hair white on back. Head ridge-shaped along the top. Tail is long and extends past membrane (one of the “free-tailed” bats).
    ACTIVITY: Begins foraging at sunset, usually high up in open areas.
    HABITS: Feeds on insects, primarily beetles. Roosts in colonies of up to 300 in buildings and tree hollow
    HABITAT: Lowland forest, open areas including towns and villages
    STATUS: Often common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Common vampire bat

Desmodus rotundus

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  • Common vampire bat

    Desmodus rotundus

    SIZE: body=8 cm; weight=30 g
    DESCRIPTION: Moderately large greyish brown bat with short glossy fur. Front upper teeth are very sharp and blade-like. Thumbs are long and very well-developed.
    ACTIVITY: Agile flier, leaves roost well after dark
    HABITS: Obligate blood feeder. Preys on domesticated and wild mammals. Usually lands on the ground and approaches animal on thumbs and feet. Can leap up onto prey in a single bound. Cuts a bit of flesh with its sharp teeth and an anticoagulant in the vampire’s saliva allows it to lap up the blood that is pooling on the wound. Roosts in hollow trees and caves. Stable female groups of 8 to 12 are formed with males competing for access. Their complex social structure includes regurgitating blood meals to those that have not fed.
    HABITAT: Primary forest (where their densities seem naturally low), but they are more numerous near farmland.
    STATUS:Often common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

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Common short tail fruit bat

Carollia perspicillata

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  • Common short tailed fruit bat

    Carollia perspicillata

    SIZE: body=6 cm; weight=20 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium sized greyish brown bat. Dorsal hairs have a distinctive tricolour pattern of a dark base and tip with a whitish middle band. Moderate-sized noseleaf. Chin has a large central wart surrounded by smaller bumps.
    Activity: Will regularly fly over a kilometre from its roost and typically forages in the understory
    ACTIVITY: Will regularly fly over a kilometre from its roost and typically forages in the understory.
    HABITS: Feeds primarily on small fruits but also insects and nectar. This bat distributes the seeds of colonizing plants, including small-fruited species in the genus Piper, into open areas such as new clearings created by tree falls. Roosts in a variety of places including hollow trees, logs, buildings, culverts, and caves. Groups are usually small but some colonies may number over a thousand.
    HABITAT: Found in most tropical habitats, from rain forest to savannah, especially disturbed areas.
    STATUS: One of the commonest bats in Iwokrama. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Common long tongued bat

Glossophaga soricina

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  • Common long tongued bat

    Glossophaga soricina

    SIZE: body=5 cm; weight=10 g
    DESCRIPTION: Small brownish bat with base of hairs white. Muzzle elongated with groove splitting lower lip, and very long tongue. Small noseleaf.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal
    HABITS: Feeds on nectar and pollen but also on a broad range of foods including insects and fruit. Roosts include tree hollows, buildings, culverts, and caves. Depending on the roost site, colonies can range from six to hundreds.
    HABITAT: Primary forest, disturbed areas and around buildings.
    STATUS: Common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Striped hairy nosed bat

Mimon crenulatum

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  • Striped hairy nosed bat

    Mimon crenulatum

    SIZE: body=6.5 cm; weight=14 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium size with blackish fur and pale stripe along the back; underside buffy. Prominent noseleaf with serrated, hairy edges.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal
    HABITS: Feeds on beetles and other insects probably gleaning them from vegetation. Small groups roost in rotting logs and tree stumps, and tree hollows.
    HABITAT: Lowland rainforest and gallery forest
    STATUS: Uncommon. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Greater fruit eating bat

Artibeus lituratus

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  • Greater fruit eating bat

    Artibeus lituratus

    SIZE: body=9.5 cm; weight=60 g
    DESCRIPTION: Very large and stocky with short brown fur. Four bright white stripes on the face.
    ACTIVITY: Takes flight after dusk and forages during the early evening. Flies long distances (3 to 7 km).
    HABITS: Feeds primarily on figs but also other fruits, flowers and pollen. This species is an important contributor to reforestation because it usually eats the fruit at a separate feeding roost away from the fruiting tree which facilitates seed dispersal. In Guyana, most groups probably roost in tree hollows or within the foliage. Groups are usually composed of a single male and several females.
    HABITAT: Most forest types, especially lowland rainforest.
    STATUS: Very common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Commonn tent making bat

Uroderma bilobatum

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  • Common tent making bat

    Uroderma bilobatum

    SIZE: body=6.5 cm; weight=15 g
    DESCRIPTION: Medium-sized greyish bat with white stripe down back. Four white stripes on face and paler edging on ears. The muzzle is relatively robust with a deep rostrum.
    ACTIVITY: Nocturnal
    HABITS: Feeds primarily on fruit, supplemented with insects and nectar. Is probably an obligate “tent” rooster. Tents are made by the bat biting through a leaf, such as palm, until the leaf droops over to form a shelter. There many be up to 50 bats clustered together under a tent.
    HABITAT: Lowland rainforest, but also disturbed areas around gardens.
    STATUS: Often common. IUCN lists this bat as a species of least concern.

Carinvores

This group includes mammals with large canines and most have slicing cheek teeth (carnassials) which they use to hold and cut their food. Many carnivores are omnivorous rather than strictly meat eaters, and some eat mostly fruit. Members of the group include dogs, cats, kinkajous and otters.

(coming soon)

Ungulates

This category includes two groups of large herbivores, the odd toed ungulates (perrisodactyls), such as the Tapir, and the even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls), such as peccaries and deer. Hoofed mammals walk on their toes which are tipped with one, two, or three hooves.

(coming soon)

Opossums

Opossums are marsupials which give birth to very small young that crawl to a teat (often located within a pouch) where they complete development. Most are good climbers, with a long grasping tail, and an opposable hind toe which acts like a thumb. They have more teeth than other mammals and are omnivorous, eating a variety of fruits, insects and small vertebrates. Most are nocturnal

(coming soon)

Primates

Agile climbers, monkeys and tamarins have forward facing eyes and dexterous, grasping hands and feet. The tail is long and is prehensile (grasping) in the larger species. New World primates are social animals, with well-developed communication systems.

(coming soon)

Rodents

Rodents are chisel-toothed mammals which are important fruit and seed consumers and dispersal agents. Rodents come in a wide range of sizes. In this section we include the large rodents which weigh more than about 2 kilograms.

(coming soon)

Rodents – Small

Rodents are chisel-toothed mammals which have large front incisors and no canine teeth. They are consumers of fruits and seeds for which they act as important agents of dispersal. In this section we include the small rodents (e.g., rats. mice, and spiny rats).

(coming soon)

Sloths

Sloths live in trees, where they often hang upside down from their hooked claws, only rarely descending to the ground. They specialize on eating leaves and have a multi-chambered stomach, reminiscent of a ruminant, to aid digestion.

(coming soon)